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Transitioning from Basic toward Systems Pharmacodynamic Models: Lessons from Corticosteroids.
Pharmacological Reviews  (IF25.468),  Pub Date : 2020-04-01, DOI: 10.1124/pr.119.018101
Vivaswath S Ayyar,William J Jusko

Technology in bioanalysis, -omics, and computation have evolved over the past half century to allow for comprehensive assessments of the molecular to whole body pharmacology of diverse corticosteroids. Such studies have advanced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) concepts and models that often generalize across various classes of drugs. These models encompass the "pillars" of pharmacology, namely PK and target drug exposure, the mass-law interactions of drugs with receptors/targets, and the consequent turnover and homeostatic control of genes, biomarkers, physiologic responses, and disease symptoms. Pharmacokinetic methodology utilizes noncompartmental, compartmental, reversible, physiologic [full physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and minimal PBPK], and target-mediated drug disposition models using a growing array of pharmacometric considerations and software. Basic PK/PD models have emerged (simple direct, biophase, slow receptor binding, indirect response, irreversible, turnover with inactivation, and transduction models) that place emphasis on parsimony, are mechanistic in nature, and serve as highly useful "top-down" methods of quantitating the actions of diverse drugs. These are often components of more complex quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models that explain the array of responses to various drugs, including corticosteroids. Progressively deeper mechanistic appreciation of PBPK, drug-target interactions, and systems physiology from the molecular (genomic, proteomic, metabolomic) to cellular to whole body levels provides the foundation for enhanced PK/PD to comprehensive QSP models. Our research based on cell, animal, clinical, and theoretical studies with corticosteroids have provided ideas and quantitative methods that have broadly advanced the fields of PK/PD and QSP modeling and illustrates the transition toward a global, systems understanding of actions of diverse drugs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Over the past half century, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) have evolved to provide an array of mechanism-based models that help quantitate the disposition and actions of most drugs. We describe how many basic PK and PK/PD model components were identified and often applied to the diverse properties of corticosteroids (CS). The CS have complications in disposition and a wide array of simple receptor-to complex gene-mediated actions in multiple organs. Continued assessments of such complexities have offered opportunities to develop models ranging from simple PK to enhanced PK/PD to quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) that help explain therapeutic and adverse CS effects. Concurrent development of state-of-the-art PK, PK/PD, and QSP models are described alongside experimental studies that revealed diverse CS actions.