The presence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in malignant tumors is one of the primary causes of treatment failure in cancer chemotherapy. The overexpression of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which significantly increases the efflux of certain anticancer drugs from tumor cells, produces MDR. Therefore, inhibition of P-gp may represent a viable therapeutic strategy to overcome cancer MDR. Over the past 4 decades, many compounds with P-gp inhibitory efficacy (referred to as first- and second-generation P-gp inhibitors) have been identified or synthesized. However, these compounds were not successful in clinical trials due to a lack of efficacy and/or untoward toxicity. Subsequently, third- and fourth-generation P-gp inhibitors were developed but dedicated clinical trials did not indicate a significant therapeutic effect. In recent years, an extraordinary array of highly potent, selective, and low-toxicity P-gp inhibitors have been reported. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the synthetic and natural products that have specific inhibitory activity on P-gp drug efflux as well as promising chemosensitizing efficacy in MDR cancer cells. The present review focuses primarily on the structural features, design strategies, and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of these compounds.